Alex Rutar

From Vim and Tmux to Neovim

I recently migrated from a Vim and tmux work environment to one using only NeovimUsing Vim 8 or newer should be fine as well, but I make no guarantees.. In this article, I will discuss some of the issues I had with my old workflow, and why this transition resolved some of these problems.

My work environment with Vim and tmux

For reference, here is a crude approximation of my old work environment with Vim and tmux:

  • Each project gets its own tmux session. Within each session, have a dedicated window for performing a task (running a terminal, or Vim, or some other tool).
  • Allow session persistence with tmux-resurrect.
  • Open new file edits in Vim splits / buffers / tabs, and new terminals in tmux panes / windows.

Overall, this worked well. I used this setup for a couple years. However, over time, I accumulated some annoyances that were challenging to resolve.


My main struggle with using Vim inside tmux is that there are often multiple ways to do the same thing. For example, tmux lets you split the window vertically with Ctrl+B " and Vim lets you do this with Ctrl+W S or :vsp. And these splits are not interoperable. Navigation commands are different, and often I found myself trying to Ctrl+W L into a tmux split, which just doesn’t work. Moreover, you can’t yank / paste between different tmux splits. Other standard actions in Vim (for example, changing the directory with :cd or :lcd) have equivalences in tmux, but this requires entering verbose commands, or binding (and memorizing and using) new shortcuts.

Having to change my mindset from tmux mode to Vim mode was a frequent source of friction in my workflow.

I also had some other more minor, but long–running, gripes with tmux.

  1. The tmux-resurrect plugin is great, but it occasionally struggles to restart windows running an instance of Vim. Moreover, shutting down tmux sessions with active Vim instances has a tendency to create floating swap filesYou can disable swap files entirely by adding the lines set noswapfile and set directory= to your init.vim..
  2. I had many unresolved issues getting colours to show up properly inside a tmux session. When colours work, everything is great. But when colours don’t work, life becomes hell trying to resolve this.
  3. I had occasional input latency issues that were hard to diagnose.
  4. The additional layer of tmux abstraction eats a whole extra line of your screen real estate.

There are likely ways to fix many of these problems listed above, and some may be entirely my fault (I suspect 1. is caused by not killing the tmux server gracefully). However, I like solutions with minimal complexity, and continually layering fixes above my existing workflow does not appeal to me.

A solution, perhaps?

Many of the problems detailed in previous section can be easily fixed by simply not using tmux. The only catch here is that I would lose two important features: convenient access to new interactive terminals, and session persistence. It turns out that both of these issues can be solved using only Neovim.

Most of what I will discuss in the next section will work in modern versions of Vim as well (at least Vim 8.1). For simplicity, I will only discuss my solution using Neovim.

Running a terminal inside Neovim

Running a terminal inside Neovim is very easy: just run :term to convert the current split into a terminal. Open a terminal in a new vertical split with :vsp +term (or any file other editing command). With focus on a terminal buffer, hit i to enter a special terminal edit mode, and return to normal mode with Ctrl+\\ Ctrl+N (all other keystrokes are passed through to the interactive shell). In order to use your standard login shell, add a line like

set shell=zsh\ --login

to your init.vim.

To have an authentic terminal experience, it’s also nice to turn off line numbers. Neovim provides an event TermOpen which we can use for this purpose:

autocmd TermOpen * setlocal nonumber norelativenumber

We now have a functional terminal running inside Neovim.

Another benefit of running a terminal inside Neovim is that you get tmux’s copy-mode essentially for free. This is as simple as returning to normal mode and treating the terminal split as just another text file.

There is one problem with this setup: if we open a file with nvim from inside a Neovim terminal, we get a nested Neovim instance running inside the terminal. One solution is to use neovim-remote. With neovim-remote installed, we can send keystrokes to a running Neovim instance from any terminal instance (including those running within Neovim). As a consequence of this, from within our Neovim terminal, just run nvr filename and filename will be opened and replace the terminal window, without nesting. If you don’t want to replace your current split, there are options to open the file in a new tab or split relative to the terminal split. You can read about these with nvr --help.

Saved state and session management

Neovim comes with a built-in utility for saving sessions: the :mksession command. Called with an optional file argument (which defaults to placing a Session.vim file in the current :pwd), it generates a Neovim source file at that filename which, when sourced, restores the state of the instance when :mksession was first called. While :mksession works very well at saving the state, it can be quite tedious to use in practice. However, with a small amount of work we can use it to robustly save the state of our Neovim instance, and conveniently restore it when needed.

The first trick is the easiest: just install Tim Pope’s obsession.vim. This plugin defines an :Obsess command, which is used in the same way as :mksession, but with some great quality of life features:

  1. It automatically saves the session at every BufEnter event.
  2. It maintains its own state within the session file, so any session you restore is automatically saved.

It does some other nice things, which you can read about on the obsession.vim page linked above.

In practice, using obsession.vim looks something like the following. You open up a new workspace nvim filename and run :Obsess session.vim (or whatever filename you want). Edit as normally, creating new splits or tabs liberally, and when you are finished, just :wa :qa. Next time you are in the same directory and want to edit the files, restart the session with nvim -S session.vim. Now, :Obsess session.vim is already running and we don’t need to think about it at all.

For convenience, we can write a quick wrapper for :Obsess to save all our session files in a single location, and a utility to restore sessions. Place the line

command -nargs=1 SSave Obsess $NVIM_SESSION_DIR/<args>.vim

somewhere in your init.vim, and the function

v() {
    local fname
    if [ -n "$1" ]; then
        if [ ! -f "$fname" ]; then
            echo "Error: the session file '$1' does not exist!"
            return 1
            nvim -S "$fname" ${@:2}

in your .zshrc (or similar). You will also need to place a line like

export NVIM_SESSION_DIR="/my/session/dir"

in your .zshrc, where /my/session/dir is the directory in which you want the session files to be saved.

Now, when you want to create a new session, simply :SSave project/name to initialize the session file with name project/name. Edit as usual, and :qa to exit. To rejoin where you left off, just run v project/name from anywhere.

As a warning, since :Obsess will overwrite existing session files, :SSave (if called with an existing project/name) will happily wipe out the saved state of an existing session! You may want to modify the definition of :SSave to prevent this from happening.

If you want completion, first add the helper function

v_session_list() {
    cd $NVIM_SESSION_DIR && find . -type f -name "*.vim" \
        | cut -c 3- | cut -d "." -f 1

to your ~/.zshrc. Then, create a file with name _v somewhere in your $fpath (or wherever completion files belong in your personal shell) with content

#compdef v

_v() {
    if (( CURRENT == 2 )); then
        _alternative "files:sessions:(${(@f)$(v_session_list)})"

Now, typing v SPACE TAB in your terminal will offer up the acceptable possibilities for your session name.

Concluding remarks and some challenges

This setup is conspicuously missing convenient instance persistence. Every time you want to rejoin a session, you are sourcing a lot of Vimscript to restart the Neovim instance. This is quite fast, but it would be a lot better to place the Neovim instance in the background, or temporarily suspend it to rejoin it again later. Currently, I simply suspend my Neovim instances with Ctrl+Z and then restore with fg. However, this is not a particularly elegant solution and I have not yet spent the time figuring out how to do this properly.

So far, I am very happy with this setup. It remains to be seen if it will last longer than my previous one.